File:Holstein dairy cows.jpg

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Holstein dairy cows

Holsteins originated in Netherlands and are the world's highest milk producing dairy cows. With artificial selective breeding by Dutch breeders, the milk production is very high. Their white and black color patterns are also due to selective breeding. In Europe they were raised both for milk and beef. They were imported into United States and a stock of high quality dairy cows were developed and this North American stock were described as "Holstein". Considering their dairy value, they were exported to Europe for breeding them with the original native Holstein stock. Crosses between the two are described by the term "Holstein-Friesian". Presently Holstein refers to cattle traced from North American bloodlines whereas the term "Friesian" refers to indigenous European black and white cattle.

In US, Holstein-Friesian Association of America was formed in 1885 and in 1994 the name was changed to Holstein Association USA, Inc. Many technical innovations were successfully carried out in US. Use of milk production hormone, recombinant bST had increased the milk production further. From the traditional two-times-per-day milking, three times-a-day milking has become a common milking frequency in recent years. Use of total mixed ration (TMR) feeding systems has further increased the production. All forages, grains, protein supplements, minerals and vitamins are thoroughly mixed. Therefore, the cow can do very little sorting for individual ration ingredients. Embryo transfer techniques helped in faster multiplication of herds using low value surrogate mothers.

Related pictures & information

DescriptionHolstein dairy cows
Date2002-09-21
Sourceen.wikipedia.org and http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/graphics/photos/ Image Number K7964-1
Author Photo by Scott Bauer
PermissionPD-USGOV-USDA-ARS.
This image is in the public domain because it contains materials that originally came from the Agricultural Research Service, the research agency of the United States Department of Agriculture.

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Date/TimeThumbnailDimensionsUserComment
current19:32, 20 November 2012Thumbnail for version as of 19:32, 20 November 2012640 × 438 (102 KB)Mahmood (Talk | contribs)en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ File:Holstein_dairy_cows.jpg ars.usda.gov/is/graphics/photos/ Photo by Scott Bauer

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