Red and white Holsteins breeds
The black and white expression of colors on fur-coat of Holsteins is due to dominant alleles of if genes. However the black color gets replaced in some offspring to red. This is due to the expression of a recessive gene. When the parents have both dominant genes (say 'BB'), all the offspring will also be 'BB' and have black patches.
However if one of the parent (carrier) has a recessive gene ('Bb'), the progeny will all have black patches, but 25% of them are likely to be the carriers of recessive gene. If the both the parents are carriers 50% of the offspring are likely to red colored.
As the red coat is considered as a negative trait, most of the early accounts of red calves being born to black and white carrier parents were never documented. Many Holsteins were imported from Canada each year, and many were carriers. This has been diluting efforts in US to eliminate the red trait.
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