From Wiki Farming, the free agriculture encyclopedia
For carrying out farming activities certain resources are prerequisite. The important being Agriculture land, water, farm labor, fertilizers and machinery.
Agriculture land - the most important resource
The principle resource for farming activities is agriculture land. This is the land utilized for farm production. This includes both land for crop production and livestock production.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in its standard classification divides farm land into arable land, plantations and pastures. The arable land is used for the production of agriculture crops like cereals and grains, vegetables and other annual crops.
Farm land is also used under permanent crops like orchards and plantations. Meadows and pastures are farm lands used for grazing of farm animals and livestock.
Water as agriculture resource
Water is another very important resource for farm production. Worldwide, nearly 70% of the water is utilized for irrigation for farming.
Though the daily water requirement of humans is only 2-5 liters per day depending upon the weight of the individual and climatic condition, to satisfy his daily dietary needs, nearly 3000 liters of water is required for food production. During the last century water was considered as an infinite resources leading to its wastage.
With the increase in the world population and the present scientific methods of crop production it is realized that water is getting fast-depleted. Various water conservation methods of irrigation like drip irrigation and sprinkler irrigation are being tried; however the costs of irrigating crops spiral up.
Resource of agriculture labor
Agriculture laborers (farmworker or farmhand) are very essential resource for all farming activities. Irrespective of the size of agricultural operation, whether it is a small family-run farm or high scale industrial agriculture operations, farm labor is required at some level or other for the operations.
Though the farm labor is the most primary production force, they are marginalized labor group in the world. Further farm labor is usually a seasonal employment with high degree of job insecurity. This leads to low wages and conditions of extreme poverty.
The use of farm machinery is very important for increasing productivity of the farms. Machinery resources can lead to successful farming operations. With the advent of use of plow for tillage, many improved machines have been developed and used in almost all the farming operations.
Specialized machines like tractors for plowing, seeders and planters, harvesters and combines, aerial sprayers and transport trucks for the movement of the farm inputs and outputs have come into existance.
Fertilizers and manures
Fertilizers are very important agriculture inputs for efficient farming activity. Fertilizers are both available from natural organic sources like manures and also in inorganic or synthetic forms. The use of fertilizers has increased the farm productivity by many folds.
However their excess use, especially of inorganic nature, has created many environmental problems. Over fertilization can as detrimental to the plants as under-fertilization leading to damage of the plant tissue.
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