A small percentage (2-3%) of adults suffer from bedwetting (nocturnal enuresis). This involuntary voiding of urine during sleep in many cases indicate a urological disorder and it can be treated in most cases if the causes are known.
Weakened muscles are causes of bedwetting in adults
Weakening of urethral sphincter muscles and pelvic floor muscles due to old age, lack of exercise or prolonged illness requiring rest, may lead to involuntary voiding of urine during sleep in adults.
In such situation the affected adult may have difficulty in holding urine in the daytime also and in some cases urine may keep dripping in the daytime.
Low antidiuretic hormone causes bedwetting in adults
Urine production in the night is slowed down by antidiuretic hormone produced by the body. In some cases there may be imbalances in the hormone production due to varied reasons and result in bladder filling beyond its capacity in the night resulting in voiding of urine in sleep.
Diabetes and bedwetting in adults
In persons suffering from diabetes the body increases the urine output to eliminate the excess of blood sugar. In such cases the bladder gets filled up fast and in night and may void during sleep.
Diuretic medicine and bedwetting in adults
In certain health disorders diuretic medicines are prescribed to get the body rid off excess fluid and/or sodium. In such persons taking diuretic medicines in the evening or night causes nocturnal enuresis.
Diseases of the urinary tracts and adult bedwetting
Infection or cancer in the urinary tract or bladder causes frequent and urgent need for urination and the bladder may void during sleep in adults.
Certain diets and beverages are causes of bedwetting in adults
Caffeine in coffee and other beverages has diuretic effects. Alcohol also has diuretic effects and may stimulate voiding bladder during sleep. Higher doses of vitamins like vitamin B6 and C and minerals like potassium have diuretic effects and may result in nocturnal enuresis in adults.
Psychological causes of bedwetting in adults
Stress, trauma, anxiety, fear, emotional imbalance, Alzheimer’s disease or psychological disorders can result in nocturnal enuresis.
Pressure on bladder causes bedwetting in adults
In pregnancy, prostate gland enlargement or cancer, chronic constipation or obesity, continuous pressure may be exerted on the bladder and this may result in nocturnal enuresis in adults.
Genetic predisposition causes bedwetting in adults
It is found that some people are genetically predisposed for nocturnal enuresis. Children of parents suffering from nocturnal enuresis have greater risk of getting nocturnal enuresis. Some adults with genetic predisposition start nocturnal enuresis in their childhood and continue through their adulthood.
Obstructive sleep apnea causes bedwetting in adults
In obstructive sleep apnea, the affected persons hold their breath for brief periods during their sleep. In such adults increased urine production as well as pressure on the abdomen causes bedwetting.
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Image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Urinary_system.svg
Image author: Jordi March i Nogué 
Image license: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en
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